Getting A Work Permit in Canada if Your Job is Not Covered Under CUSMA/NAFTA
The company that wishes to employ an American worker must first try to recruit a Canadian citizen or Canadian permanent resident to fill the position, and then provide proof to the government that there is actually a labor shortage and that they must hire the foreign worker (American citizen). This process is known as a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA).
If the application convinces Service Canada that the role requires an American national to come to Canada to do the work, the application is approved — deemed to have a positive impact on the Canadian labour market — and the American worker can come to Canada for employment in that role.
Once a positive LMIA is issued, then the US citizen can apply for their LMIA-based work permit. While in Canada on an LMIA-based work permit, the American citizen is only allowed to work for the employer and in the role for which the employer has received an approved LMIA.
After working in Canada for at least one year, the American citizen may be eligible to apply for permanent residence in Canada based on their Canadian work experience.